Support and anchoring of wooden beams in the outer wall: a) leading, b) side;1 - beam, 2 - kotew, 3 - plug.
The ends of the wooden and steel beams rest in the nests left in the wall. There is free space around the wooden beams for air access. Steel beams can be bricked in or encased in concrete in the wall. For the supports of the wooden beams, pads made of impregnated hardwood or roofing felt insulation are provided.
The feet of the steel beams can rest directly on the layer of cement mortar on the wall. If the steel beam transmits high forces, and the masonry is made of low-strength material, then the beam should be supported on a concrete pad, stone, clinker brick, or on a reinforced concrete rim.
To reduce the slenderness of the walls and increase the stiffness of the building by ensuring better cooperation of the ceiling with the load-bearing walls, floor beams should be anchored in the wall. Usually, beams resting in sockets are anchored in the wall with flat bars or steel bars. If the beams are connected to the rims, this anchorage may consist of bars welded or passed through holes in the beams and concreted in the ring beam. Anchoring is made in every third or every fourth beam based on the wall. The beam ceilings should also be connected with anchors with the walls parallel to the ceiling beams; the bolt spacing is assumed at the distance 1/3 beam span.
Support and anchoring of steel beams: a), b), c) rest on the outside wall, d) support of the beams on the internal wall; 1 - beam, 2 - kotew.