Crowning cornices: a) unreinforced brick cornice showing the roof truss,, b) brick with a larger overhang, reinforced with a hoop, c) reinforced concrete, anchored in the wall; 1 -gzyms, 2 - kotew, 3 — krokiew, 4 - brick wall.

The horizontal layers of the wall protruding from the face of external walls are called cornices. Cornices are made for both architectural and protective reasons, they protect e.g.. against rainwater.

Depending on the location of the cornice in the wall of the building, the cornices are divided into:
a) crowning - performed at the top end of the walls,
b) inter-storey - dividing the front wall into individual floors,
c) plinth - protecting the plinth protruding from the face of the wall,
d) outdoor,
e) sill - also called sill or external sill.

The dimensions of the cornice and the method of its anchoring to the wall must be so selected, so that the cornice does not collapse under load and does not overturn. With larger overhangs, reinforced concrete cornices are made, less often, brick reinforced with hoop iron or reinforced with steel sections. The picture above shows brick and reinforced concrete cornices. Cornices with a greater projection should be anchored in the wall.

The window sills can be made of brick covered with mortar and secured with a metal sheet (rys.a) or they can be concrete slabs.

Podokienniki: a) brick, secured with a zinc sheet, b) concrete.