Rules for building walls

According to the type of masonry elements used, a distinction is made:
— mury ceramiczne,
— mury silikatowe,
— nury betonowe,
— mury z autoklawizowanego betonu komórkowego,
— mury z kamienia naturalnego.

Each wall consists of small elements - bricks, stones, blocks - laid in horizontal layers. Stones, bricks and other elements are usually placed in the wall "flat", i.e.. perpendicular to the forces acting on the masonry. Sometimes, however, a brick is laid "in a" or "standing" position, e.g.. on the foundation. Vertical joints of one layer should be covered with full surfaces of the other (upper) layers.

Stones, bricks, blocks and hollow bricks are connected with mortar. Different grades of mortar are used for joining, depending on their composition:

a) zaprawy wapienne,
b) zaprawy cementowe,
c) zaprawy wapienno-cementowe,
d) zaprawy cementowo-gliniane,
e) zaprawy gipsowe,
f) zaprawy gipsowo-wapienne,
g) zaprawy lekkie na kruszywach porowatych,
h) zaprawy napowietrzne,
i) specjalne rodzaje zapraw, e.g.. with high strength, light intended for bricklaying, light plastering and insulating.

Light mortars intended for bricklaying are intended to improve the thermal insulation of the wall.

The wall bearing capacity depends on:
— wytrzymałości elementów murowych,
— wytrzymałości zaprawy,
— rodzaju wiązania muru,
— kształtu i rozmiarów elementów murowych,
— kształtu i rozmiarów muru oraz podparcia.

In brick walls, the thickness of the supporting joints is assumed (horizontal)'1 and crosswise made with the use of ordinary and light mortars, not and less than 8 mm and not more than 15 mm.

Transverse joints are considered to be filled, if the mortar reaches at least 0,4 weld length, otherwise, the joints should be considered unfilled.