Ceilings – general requirements

The ceilings should fulfill the following tasks:
a) przenosić obciążenia stałe i użytkowe,
b) usztywniać ściany budynku w płaszczyznach poziomych,
c) stanowić przegrody, against fire penetration during a fire in adjacent floors,
d) chronić pomieszczenia na poszczególnych kondygnacjach od przenikania ciepła i dźwięków,
e) stanowić szczelną przegrodę przed wilgocią, gases, production vapors, smells, etc..

Moreover, in some buildings, e.g.. for multi-storey buildings, it is advantageous to use low-thickness ceilings due to the reduction of the overall volume of the building.

Depending on the location in the building, the ceiling should bear its own weight and all additional permanent and service loads. The ceiling deflection under the action of the total load may not exceed the permissible value specified in the relevant regulations. The ceilings are the horizontal diaphragms of the building, which not only stiffen the walls, but they work with them and thus increase the overall spatial stiffness of the building. Through the floor slabs, the horizontal load - from the wind or from devices and machines - is transferred from the walls perpendicular to the action of the wind to the parallel walls, e.g.. from longitudinal to transverse. Therefore, a proper connection between the ceiling and the wall plays an important role.

Ceilings constituting partitions preventing the spread of fire should meet the conditions of fire resistance depending on the fire resistance class of the building. The anticipated fire load should not damage the floor structure.

The ceilings, which separate utility rooms with different temperatures or separate the rooms from the outside environment, like for example. ceilings over crossings, under terraces and flat roofs, should meet the requirements of thermal and acoustic insulation. The thermal insulation of the ceiling must be adapted to the temperature difference on both sides.

Depending on the type of sounds - airborne or impact - different construction and material solutions for ceilings and floors are used.. Airborne sounds can be suppressed by using a ceiling of appropriate weight, while the impact sounds by using e.g.. appropriate structure of both the ceiling, and the floating floor.