Types of ceilings
Depending on the materials used, a distinction is made between flammable and non-flammable ceilings. Wood ceilings are classified as combustible ceilings, and for non-flammable ceilings on steel beams, Monolithic and prefabricated reinforced concrete ceilings and ceramic-reinforced concrete ceilings.
Depending on the construction solutions used, ceilings are distinguished:
The main load-bearing element in the joist floor is the beam, on which the filling elements in the form of plates or vaults are based, and on them finishing layers (floor tiles). The structural system of the ceiling created in this way: load-bearing elements - beams and filling the space between them, it comes in various variants, both as to the method of filling, and material. The beams can be wooden, steel and reinforced concrete with rectangular sections; double or tee.
Wooden ceilings are mainly used in buildings made of wood, while in brick buildings they are used less and less, mainly due to their flammability.
Steel beam ceilings.
Steel beams, most often with an I-section, are the main load-bearing elements. The spacing of the beams depends on how the space between the beams is filled, ceiling span and loads acting on the ceiling and amounts to 120-200 cm. When filling with ceramic plates, the beam spacing is 120-150 cm, while for reinforced concrete slabs it can be assumed 200 cm.
The supporting length of steel beams on the wall should not be less than
a = 15 + h/3 cm
where h - beam height.