Layered wall: a) view, b) vertical section; 1 - texture layer, 2 - air gap, 3 - thermal insulation, 4 - roofing felt insulation, 5 - inner layer (brick, blocks or blocks), 6 - wire or sand trap connector, 7 - plaster.
The structure of the external diaphragm-sandwich wall is shown in the drawing. The outer layer may be made of high quality solid brick, clinker brick or concrete with ceramic facing. The layer can also be made of brick, ceramic or concrete blocks. Wall thickness, as well as the thickness of its individual layers depend on the functional requirements and the type of materials used.
The inner load-bearing wall carries the load from the ceilings of the walls of the higher storeys and the load from the outer wall. The masonry elements in this wall must have adequate strength, however, they do not have to be frost-resistant, because the insulating layer protects them against low temperatures. There is a positive temperature over the entire thickness of the inner wall.
If the room humidity is expected to be higher than normal (>75%), then a vapor barrier is used to protect the thermal insulation material from the inside of the building. Insulating material in the form of plates and mats is attached to the inner wall. It is attached to the wall by means of anchors and pins with a spacer, or is glued locally.
The insulating material can be separated from the outer wall by an air gap, which should be ventilated. Small intake and exhaust openings are located at the bottom and top of the outer wall. The minimum width of the air gap and when using insulating material is 4 cm (recommended 5 cm).
The outer wall should be made of the best quality masonry elements, because this wall is usually not plastered. It is the facade, building. The masonry elements in this wall must have a very good frost resistance and should have a nice appearance.
The outer wall in buildings up to 12 m can be designed as self-supporting with vertical load. Horizontal loads are transferred to the internal wall through anchors and connectors. In taller buildings, the wall is supported by something 1-3 storeys. In these places, horizontal dilatations are made.
The anchors connecting the two walls are of various shapes and transmit a horizontal load from the outer wall. The anchors must be of the correct type and properly spaced, to fulfill their tasks. They are of various shapes and can be made of various materials, permanent, corrosion-resistant and durable.
The spacing of the anchors, depending on the width of the slot and the thickness of the external wall, should be 0,5 x 0,5 m and not less than 4 anchors has 1 m2 of wall area.
The way of hanging the outer wall on the brackets: a) vertical section of the wall, b), c) variants of supports; 1 - bracket, 2 - horizontal guide, 3 - guide for vertical adjustment, 4 - adjusting screw, 5 - horizontal spring insert in the expansion joint,6 - vertical guide.